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Reload to refresh your session.Inthe Maratha King Shivaji was trapped in the fort of Panhala, under siege and vastly outnumbered by an Adilshahi army led by an Abyssinian named Siddi Masud.
Battle of Pavan Khind
The Adilshahis were the dynasty which ruled Bijapur for many centuries. Shivaji had inflicted embarrassing defeats upon the Adilshahis, and they were determined to crush him. The Adilshahis were often at odds with Mughals, but in this case, they were aligned with the Mughals with the joint purpose of crushing the overly audacious and clever Shivaji. Shivaji planned to escape to the fort of Vishalgadh, which was administered by a Maratha chieftain named Range Narayan Orpe under Shivaji.
Shivaji waited for months, planning and depleting the Adilshah's food source. He waited until he reckoned that they needed to gather more food, and then started his plan. Shivaji, Baji Prabhu, and around of their best troops, hardened mountaineers of the Maval region, would dash through the Adilshahi force at night. A man named Shiva Kashid, who resembled Shivajiin appearance, had volunteered to dress like the king and get captured. It was envisaged that this would buy some additional time due to the confusion over identity, before Siddi Masud realised the error and gave chase.
Shivaji made his escape on the dark night of 13 July, with his contingent of troops. Baji Prabhu was second in command of this contingent. The Adilshahis gave hot and rapid pursuit, with an army of 10, It was clear that there was no way to shake off the enemy, and that the Marathas would not simultaneously prevail over both the Moghul garrison at Vishagadh and the chasing Adilshahi army.
The only option was for a section of the Marathas to stay back and fight the larger Adilshahi forces in a rearguard action, while the rest of the Marathas would carry on to their destination. Shivaji decided that this was the inevitable choice and split his forces.
Baji Prabhu Deshpande agreed to face the troops of Bijapur with soldiers of the contingent. The strategic position of Ghod Khind Horse Pass was chosen for the defence.
It was very narrow and only a few soldiers could pass at any one time. Bajiprabhu Deshpande occupied Ghod Khind, blocking the path of the pursuers, and made a determined defence against them. His brother Fulaji Prabhu as well as sardars such as Shambusing Jadhav were present with him. Fulaji Prabhu and Shambusing were killed after a gallant and fierce fights.
Baji Prabhu was severely wounded but carried on fighting at his station. The Adilshahi army repeatedly tried to break through the defenses of the pass, but were repeatedly repulsed.
The unequal battle raged for hours, with the defenders maintaining their positions, but with rapidly depleting numbers. Only a handful of Marathas survived, and around a thousand soldiers of the Adilshahi army became casualties in attempting to take the pass. Almost three hundred Marathas had been killed. Legend has it that a gravely injured Baji Prabhu continued engaging the enemy and held the pass, only laying down his life once he heard the sound of cannon fire.
The handful surviving Marathas then retreated and disappeared in the forest as per the plan. On the other hand Shivaji and his soldiers had to break through the encirclement of Suryarao and Jaswantrao at Vishalgadh.
A fierce battle ensued in which Shivaji himself fought wearing Dandpatta in his both hands. Seeing this fight, the commander of Vishalgadh fort sent help to Shivaji enabling him and his troops to reach the fort safely.
Shivaji then fired cannons as a signal for Baji Prabhu to retreat. Having made his way to Vishalgadh, Rango Narayan Orpe had fresh troops at his disposal. Baji Prabhu had successfully fought the rearguard action and slowed the Adilshahis forces before they arrived at the fort having carried on pursuing Shivaji to Vishalgadh.Flights Vacation Rentals Restaurants Things to do.
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Pavan K PavanK Contributions Followers 0. Following 0. Thane, Maharashtra, India Joined in Dec Pavan K wrote a review. May The lighy and sound show is definitely not to be missed. They have different themes everyday and the theme when we visited was Hollywood soundtracks.
Reach at l Date of experience: March Gardens by the Bay. Singapore, Singapore. Helpful Save. Delightful green space!
Dr. Pavan Anand, MD
It's a delight to see such a big green space inside a bustling city. You can easily spend half a day leisurely strolling through its many gardens or just sure b Singapore Botanic Gardens. Although I've seen quite a few orchid gardens before, none had so many varieties as this one.
They have developed a lot of pretty looking hybrids and many have National Orchid Garden.
Mar Nice buffet option. Went here for lunch with colleagues. The starters included chaats and bite-sized pizzas which were so so. The barbequed meats were nice. Main course again was kAnubhavnidhi Abhashkumar anubhavnidhi cs.
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January - April pavank has no activity yet for this period. You signed in with another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session. You signed out in another tab or window.Naples Internal Medicine Associates.
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Experience Check Check if Dr.Hence, it seemed appealing to appraise the effect of MTX on platelets.
Thereby, the mechanism of action of MTX on platelets was dissected. We also demonstrate that platelet mitochondria as prime sources of ROS which plays a central role in MTX-induced apoptosis. These findings underpin the dearth of research on interference of therapeutic drugs with platelets, despite their importance in human health and disease.
Therefore, the use of antioxidants as supplementary therapy seems to be a safe bet in pathologies associated with altered platelet functions. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Methotrexate MTX is a well-known anti-cancer and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug, actively used in the treatment of a wide spectrum of human ailments including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis RApsoriasis, asthma, primary biliary cirrhosis, and is also as an immunosuppressant [ 1 — 4 ].
However, several studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of MTX in long term or high dose treatment; one of the major concerns being its pro-oxidant and non-specific action [ 5 ]. The average MTX levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum is reported to be Of late, Conway et al. Another recent retrospective review describes the incidences of MTX withdrawal in RA patients due to unacceptable adverse effects. The study claims that about Several cancer and RA patients also experienced significant respiratory, hepatic and renal dysfunctionalities [ 8 ].
The circulatory MTX is shown to induce acute and chronic augmentation in plasma homocysteine levels, which in turn is responsible for elevated levels of ROS. Lately, anemia and thrombocytopenia have been linked with MTX overdose or on prolonged treatment.
Many studies report a significant case of thrombocytopenia among MTX-treated RA and cancer patients [ 8 ], [ 11 ]. Thus, it is highly interesting to evaluate the mechanism of action of MTX on platelets and their functions. Though the cytotoxic nature of MTX is known, its effect on highly sensitive platelets is not clear.
Boilard et al. Platelet-derived MPs were shown to have a pro-inflammatory effect on synovial fibroblasts [ 12 ]. Despite the fact that platelets are anuclear, they undergo apoptosis either naturally or upon external stimulation [ 13 ], [ 14 ]. Hitherto, several studies have demonstrated the mitochondria-mediated classical apoptotic events. The elevated plasma levels of ROS are among the key factors responsible for premature apoptosis of platelets [ 15 ], [ 16 ].
Besides, studies have also reported the use of natural or synthetic small molecules to prevent adverse effects of MTX. Many reports including our own have shown the platelet protective actions of small molecules [ 17 ], [ 19 ]. Hence, this study for the first time makes an attempt to uncover the mechanistic action of MTX on platelet functions and survivability.
Lactate Dehydrogenase kit was from Agappe diagnostics Ltd. Methotrexate was from Sisco Research Laboratories Pvt. All other reagents were of analytical grade. The drawn blood was immediately mixed with acid citrate dextrose ACD anticoagulant and processed as described previously to obtain platelet rich plasma PRP and washed platelets [ 21 ]. Platelet apoptotic markers like increase in ROS, intracellular calcium, peroxidation of cardiolipin and PS externailization in platelets were determined as described previously using Varioskan multimode plate reader Thermo Scientifics, USA.